Discussion on safety management of hoisting machin

2022-09-21
  • Detail

Talking about the safety management of construction hoisting machinery

construction hoisting machinery and equipment plays a very important role in construction. In the past, low-rise buildings can also be completed by carrying them on their shoulders. The existing high-rise buildings must be completed by lifting machinery. Hoisting machinery is used most, but it is also the most prone to safety accidents. At present, the annual death toll of lifting accidents accounts for a large proportion of the total death toll of accidents in the country. In industrial cities, the death toll of lifting accidents accounts for 7% - 15% of the death toll of the whole industry, and in some places and departments, it is as high as 20%. Among the special types of work with more accidents, the number of hoisting accidents accounted for 34.7%, and the number of accident deaths accounted for 19.53%. In 2001, a total of 1045 people died in construction across the country, including 78 deaths from collapse accidents during the installation and demolition of hoisting machinery, accounting for 17.03% of the total deaths; 48 people died of lifting injuries, accounting for 4.2%

analyzing the reasons, I think there are two main reasons: first, the management system is not perfect and the management is not in place; Second, the operators and management cadres have poor quality, low technical level and weak heart. Therefore, I believe that to do a good job in the management of hoisting machinery and equipment and prevent accidents, we must first establish and improve various management systems of hoisting machinery; Strengthen the psychological education and technical training of operators, so that operators can truly achieve the "three good and four good" (manage, use, repair, use, maintain, check, and troubleshoot). Enterprises that install, dismantle and use hoisting machinery and equipment must obtain the qualification of "disassembly, assembly and use of hoisting machinery" from the Department of construction (Ministry); The drivers, commanders and riggers of hoisting machinery must undergo training and study, and obtain the "qualification certificate for disassembly and use of hoisting machinery" issued by the Provincial Construction Department (bureau) and the "safety operation certificate of hoisting machinery" issued by the provincial (municipal) safety production supervision and Administration Bureau. Do a good job in the whole process management of the purchase, disassembly, use, repair, maintenance and scrapping of hoisting machinery and equipment

I. early stage management of hoisting machinery

1. Tower cranes, construction elevators, door (shaft) frames, etc. are generally required for hoisting machinery equipment in the construction system. Before purchase, type selection and technical and economic demonstration should be carried out to demonstrate the technical indicators such as productivity, reliability, maintainability, durability, adaptability, safety and economic indicators such as investment amount, operating cost and income of the crane

2. Inspect the manufacturer. The lifting machinery manufacturer must have the production license of the state (Ministry of construction) and the safety production license issued by the provincial (municipal) safety production supervision and Administration Bureau; Second, the production process, equipment, fixtures, molds, materials, purchased parts, etc. of the manufacturer should ensure the quality and safety of lifting machinery; Third, the lifting machinery should have a test report, which is a qualified product after product identification

3. Analysis, evaluation and information feedback of the arrival acceptance, installation, commissioning, trial operation, test, acceptance, commissioning and use of hoisting machinery and equipment, as well as the use during the running in period

II. Disassembly and assembly management of lifting machinery

1. The disassembly and assembly unit must establish various management systems of the branch, including quality management system, safety management system, disassembly and assembly inspection and acceptance system, parts inspection system before disassembly and assembly, technical safety disclosure system, disassembly and assembly file management system, staff technical training and assessment system, etc

2. The disassembly and assembly unit must formulate the construction plan and technical measures before disassembling and assembling the lifting machinery and equipment, strictly implement the relevant national standards, industrial standards and the manufacturer's instructions, and strictly implement the prepared disassembly and assembly plan and disassembly process

3. Technical safety disclosure must be carried out for disassembly and assembly, and each person to be disclosed must clearly understand the installation and disassembly steps, processes, and everyone's work and responsibilities. After being clearly understood by the Discloser, it shall be signed and approved in the disclosure

4. During the disassembly and assembly of hoisting machinery, the personnel of the enterprise safety management department (Division), the mechanical equipment management department (Division) and the management department of the unit (leasing Station, tower crane team) must be present for guidance and supervision. Before disassembly and assembly, the disassembly and assembly plan and process must be prepared (prepared by the tower fleet of the leasing Station), and reviewed and approved by the enterprise equipment management department (division, section). The abnormal disassembly and assembly plan must be reviewed by the enterprise equipment department (division, section) and approved by the enterprise technical director

5. Before disassembly and assembly, the lifting machinery must be comprehensively checked to confirm that the electrical, hydraulic, mechanical and steel structures are intact before disassembly and assembly. Warning lines must be set up in the assembly and disassembly area, and irrelevant personnel are strictly forbidden to walk and stay in the assembly and disassembly area. Each time the lifting machinery completes a disassembly and assembly project, it must be inspected, accepted and signed by the tower crane foreman; The assembly and disassembly of the next process can only be carried out after each pass of acceptance

6. After the installation of hoisting machinery, comprehensive inspection, commissioning and test must be carried out to confirm that all technical indicators meet the requirements and that all safety devices are complete. Ling jjg1136 ⑵ 017 gives the correction formula for the influence of inertia torque ti=-j (2 F) 2 (negative sign only indicates that the direction of inertia torque is opposite to the direction of angular displacement) sensitive and reliable. The first installation after new purchase or overhaul must also be subject to overload test, which is presided over by the technical director of the enterprise

7. After the hoisting machinery is installed, it must be accepted one by one according to the "installation acceptance record". The acceptance is jointly carried out by the enterprise safety department (Division) of the installation unit (lessor), the equipment management department (Division), the hoisting machinery management personnel, safety officers, team leaders, operating drivers and the safety officers and mechanics of the user (project, lessor). After passing the acceptance, the above personnel shall sign on the "installation acceptance record" for approval. The terms with digital quantification in the acceptance record must be quantified

III. use and management of hoisting machinery and equipment

1. The use of hoisting machinery and equipment must adhere to the policy of "safety first, prevention first". No unit or individual is allowed to command, use or operate hoisting machinery and equipment against rules

2. The hoisting machinery and equipment must be hung with "qualified and approved card", "safety operation procedure card", "operator post card" and the name of the operator at the obvious place of the equipment, and the tower crane should also be hung with "ten no tags"

3. The lifting machinery and equipment must establish teams and groups, and ensure the relative stability of crew members, so as to achieve the "three fixed system" of determining personnel, machines and post responsibilities. Each team of tower crane shall not be less than 6 people, the double cage of construction elevator shall not be less than 4 people, the single cage shall not be less than 2 people, and the gantry shall not be less than 2 people

4. The crew of hoisting machinery must strictly abide by the product instructions of hoisting machinery and the technical code for safety in use of construction machinery (jgj33-2001) and the relevant national and industrial regulations and rules encouraging recycling enterprises to recycle plastic bags. Do a good job in "cross operation" (cleaning, lubrication, adjustment, fastening, corrosion prevention)

5. The crew must do a good job of "daily inspection" and shift handover every day, and carefully and truly fill in the "daily inspection records", shift handover records and operation records and archive them. The safety officer and mechanic (make "weekly inspection records" for the project), the hoisting machinery Team (or the leasing Station) make "quarterly inspection records", the enterprise machinery and equipment department (or an independent equipment leasing company) make "semi annual inspection records" and the "annual review" of hoisting machinery and equipment. If the safety device is defective or ineffective, it is not allowed to use it or shut down for rectification

6. The lifting machinery and equipment that are officially eliminated by the state must be scrapped. They must be scrapped if they are seriously worn and the basic parts have been damaged, and they cannot be used and safe after overhaul. They must be scrapped if they have been used for more than 14 years. The scrapped lifting machinery and equipment must not be reused or transferred, and must be destroyed. In case of special circumstances (such as being unused for a long time, etc.), the use can be postponed only after the technical appraisal (flaw detection, stress test, etc.) is reported to the construction department for approval

7. Enterprises must establish and improve the management machinery at all levels of hoisting machinery and equipment. The enterprise should have a mechanical equipment management department (Division), a quality and safety management department (Division), and a branch company (leasing company) should have an equipment section, with safety officers, team leaders, technical directors, etc. Personnel at all levels must have post responsibilities and be in the charge of special personnel

IV. maintenance management of hoisting machinery and equipment

1. Enterprises must establish and improve the maintenance system of hoisting machinery and equipment, according to the actual situation of hoisting machinery and equipment, Carry out "preventive maintenance" in a planned way (it is characterized by "regular inspection and repair on demand", that is, according to the operation cycle of the machine, through certain detection means, check and understand the technical status of the machine, find out the existing problems, defects and hidden dangers, and arrange a targeted repair plan to eliminate these hidden dangers and defects, so as to ensure the utilization rate and integrity rate of the machine)

2. Strive to carry out predictive maintenance, that is, adopt advanced detection and diagnosis technology (such as equipment fault diagnosis instrument, ultrasonic thickness gauge...), carry out non disassembly detection of mechanical equipment, combined with information analysis and processing, accurately understand the actual state of mechanical equipment, and arrange repair items according to the defects found in detection and diagnosis

3. Maintenance enterprises and units must issue detailed maintenance data and repair quality inspection certificate for the hoisting machinery and equipment after major repair and special repair. The machinery and equipment after overhaul should be guaranteed for six months, and the normal maintenance and intermediate repair must also have complete repair to avoid dry friction; Record

v. basic management of hoisting machinery and equipment

1. Cranes or zigzag auxiliary parts and equipment recommended by the manufacturer shall be uniformly numbered, and accounts and cards shall be established by classification. At least once a year, they shall be checked against the physical objects to keep the accounts, cards and materials consistent

2. Technical and economic archives shall be established for lifting machinery and equipment. The contents include: original technical data and handover and acceptance certificate; Records of previous major repairs and modifications; Operation time record; Accident records and other relevant data. Technical and economic archives should be kept by someone

3. Enterprises should improve the statistical report system of hoisting machinery and equipment, prepare and submit various statistical reports according to regulations, organize statistical analysis regularly, and put forward analysis reports to improve the management, use, operation and maintenance of hoisting machinery and equipment

4. Enterprises should actively create conditions to gradually realize microcomputer management, improve information and data processing capacity, change static management into dynamic management, and promote the modernization of equipment management

VI. accident management of hoisting machinery and equipment

1. Abnormal damage to hoisting machinery and equipment due to improper use, maintenance and management is a mechanical equipment accident

2. Accident grade of hoisting machinery and equipment: general accident, major accident, major accident. The accident level is divided according to the following limits:

general accident: the direct loss value of mechanical equipment is 500 ~ 10000 yuan; Major accident: the direct loss value of mechanical equipment is 10000 ~ 50000 yuan; Major accident: the direct loss value of mechanical equipment is more than 50000 yuan (the direct loss value is based on the labor and material costs required to repair the mechanical equipment to normal state after damage)

3. The tower crane overturned, fell, removed, derailed, and the tower cap fell off; The hook and lifting appliance fall, and the construction elevator "flies" and the counterweight falls; The basket falling off of the gantry (shaft) must be treated as a major accident regardless of whether there is injury or economic loss

4. After a mechanical accident, keep the scene and find out the cause, loss and loss

Copyright © 2011 JIN SHI