Discussion on risk early warning of imported mecha

2022-10-01
  • Detail

Discussion on risk warning of imported mechanical and electrical products

the import and export of mechanical and electrical products in China has an increasingly far-reaching impact on economic development. At present, the total export volume of mechanical and electrical products ranks first in the world, and its total import volume accounts for about half of China's total trade volume of goods, ranking second in the world. According to the data provided by China Economic and Trade Commission, China's import of mechanical and electrical products increased from US $18.3 billion in 1985 to US $660.3 billion in 2010, an increase of 35 times in 25 years. In the first quarter of 2001, the import volume reached 340.5 billion US dollars, and it is expected that the import deficit in 2011 will hit a new high. China's mechanical and electrical products market is expanding, and the inspection and supervision business of mechanical and electrical products is also growing rapidly, which has an impact on the original inspection and supervision mode. At present, the current situation of inspection and supervision is that first, the product risk assessment is not done well and the key points cannot be grasped; Second, the efficiency of inspection and supervision is difficult to adapt to the fast-growing business. Therefore, in order to strengthen the inspection, which is also an important part of the evaluation and research of greenhouse gas emission reduction in the life cycle of aluminum products, to verify the effectiveness of supervision and improve the customs clearance rate, we should strengthen the construction of risk early warning mechanism and grasp the quality of imported mechanical and electrical products. After all, what goes beyond the conventional configuration is to improve the efficiency of inspection and supervision when collecting additional money, so as to promote the development of trade

1 risk factor analysis of imported mechanical and electrical products

1.1 risk analysis

risk analysis is to conduct risk analysis on the risks of products to determine their corresponding risk levels, and carry out scientific classification management to find out the key points of inspection, which can not only alleviate the contradiction between large business volume and people's problems, but also greatly improve the efficiency of inspection and supervision

1.2 identification of risk factors

identification of risk factors is a necessary prerequisite for risk analysis. From the actual inspection and supervision work and the characteristics of mechanical and electrical products, its risk factors can be divided into the following four categories:

with the continuous innovation, promotion and application of scientific and technological achievements, mechanical and electrical products have been involved in environmental protection, health, electromagnetic interference and other aspects, and their own quality and characteristics are actually an indispensable symbol to evaluate the risk. In view of the diversity of mechanical and electrical products and the complexity of their quality, some products with low quality sometimes fail to meet the safety requirements, such as the cross-sectional area of the power line is not standardized, and the appearance process is relatively rough. Once these products enter our country, they will pose a threat to the lives and property of users. In terms of product quality and characteristic risks, products can be divided into high-risk, medium risk and low-risk probability products, as shown in Table 1

2) product use risk

for the purpose of imported mechanical and electrical products, they are mainly for self use, sales and processing with incoming materials or incoming materials. This relationship is closely related to inspection and supervision. In terms of its risk, it is wide and involves a wide range due to market communication, and the risk it brings is also the greatest; The risk of self-use mechanical and electrical products ranked second; Products used for incoming or incoming processing are generally made into finished or semi-finished products and exported, so the risk is minimal

3) single batch value risk

single batch value refers to the external manifestation of imported mechanical and electrical products in terms of quantity and value characteristics. In general, the value of a single batch of goods is positively correlated with the risk. In the actual inspection and supervision work, the value of a single batch of goods is generally divided into three categories: one is less than 100000 US dollars; The second category is 30000 to 100000 US dollars; The third category is less than 30000 dollars

4) other risks

the quantity of imported products is very large, their types and characteristics are different, and their corresponding inspection problems are also different. Different inspectors' different understanding of inspection standards will produce different discrimination problems, and then there will be inconsistent treatment methods. The key direction of inspection and supervision also needs to be grasped. Generally, the more often mechanical and electrical products with problems or risk warnings are checked, the easier it is to produce adverse consequences, and the more risk monitoring should be increased for such products

2 establish a risk early warning mechanism and innovate the inspection and supervision mode

the risk early warning of imported mechanical and electrical products refers to the prevention and control measures estimated to avoid the harm that the users of imported mechanical and electrical products and the country may suffer from the production of c= (c1+c2+c3+c4)/4 products. Its essence is to convert the post rescue into pre prevention, and its process is to conduct risk analysis of mechanical and electrical products to pre alarm, And take prompt and active measures to deal with the products of risk early warning. China's import of mechanical and electrical products in the early stage is growing, coupled with the sensitive characteristics of mechanical and electrical products, it is very necessary to establish a sound risk early warning mechanism and innovate the inspection and supervision mode to promote the development of imported mechanical and electrical products

2.1 establish a risk early warning mechanism for imported mechanical and electrical products

the author ye genpu's understanding of the inspection and supervision of imported mechanical and electrical products and their own characteristics, and combined with the risk management theory, put forward the following risk early warning mechanism:

1) establish an early warning office

The main function of the early warning office is to act as a fixed information collection center. Its main task is to collect risk early warning information about imported mechanical and electrical products, and screen, confirm and feed back it

2) collect and process risk early warning information

the risk early warning information of imported mechanical and electrical products mainly includes relevant inspection and quarantine information, monitoring, market research and other information, information released by international organizations and relevant institutions, and feedback information from domestic and foreign mechanical and electrical products consumer countries

3) determine the risk early warning range of mechanical and electrical products

the scope of risk early warning mainly includes three aspects: first, there are high-risk sensitive mechanical and electrical products, which have high hidden dangers of safety, environmental protection and health protection; Second, the risk information of unqualified mechanical and electrical products, mainly unqualified information in terms of product quality, packaging, weight, etc; Third, other risk information, including information on the quality of inspection and supervision work and information that needs to be paid attention to by the inspection and supervision departments

4) carry out risk analysis of mechanical and electrical products:

① determine the risk assessment method

in view of the complex variety of imported mechanical and electrical products, and it is difficult to conduct risk analysis with simple qualitative or quantitative methods, this paper adopts comprehensive evaluation. The main idea is to conduct a qualitative analysis of risk factors first, and then evaluate each type of product using the risk assessment method of operating conditions according to product characteristics. Next, the main mechanism of this method is introduced in detail

the risk assessment method of operating conditions in the risk analysis of mechanical and electrical products believes that there are three types of factors affecting the risk of operating guns of mechanical and electrical products: l, indicating the characteristics and uses of mechanical and electrical products, the value of a single batch of goods and the risk of nonconformity of other factors; E. Indicates the risk of product nonconformity; C. Indicates the risk of consequences caused by unqualified products. At the same time, use d=l × E × C represents the risk level of products, which is an important reference basis for inspection and quarantine business

for L, the nonconforming products produced by four types of risk factors can be divided into high-risk, medium risk and low-risk probability products by combining empirical analysis and Yuanqi analysis, and the specific scope of three types of probability products with different degrees of risk can be determined at the same time

for e, it refers to the risk of product nonconformities. In this link, we can analyze and count the nonconformities found in previous years' inspection through Yuanqi analysis, and draw the risks of different types of products at the same time

for C, it refers to the consequences of unqualified production. Many countries and regions generally use the level specified in the U.S. military standard mil-std-882, in which it is recognized that the risk level is determined by the severity and possibility of the risk, as shown in Table 2

the values in Table 2 refer to the risk assessment index of the consequences of product nonconformity, and its value is between 1 and 20. At the same time, the hazard evaluation index in Table 2 can be divided into four levels to provide a reference basis for product inspection and supervision, as shown in Table 3

② determine the degree of risk

through the above risk analysis, with reference to the judgment criteria in Table 2 and table 3, as well as the unqualified risk l of Yuanqi mechanical and electrical products and the risk e of unqualified events, the risks of imported mechanical and electrical products can be classified into three categories in terms of safety, health and environmental protection H: the first category is high-risk, which refers to products with great hidden dangers; The second category is medium risk, which refers to products with certain hidden dangers; The third category refers to low-risk products

5) report risk information

here mainly refers to the problems occurred during the inspection and Quarantine of imported mechanical and electrical products, and timely feed back information to the early warning system (including product name, source, existing problems, etc.), and then report according to the risk level

6) formulate prevention and control measures

the prevention and control measures taken are mainly to determine the inspection and supervision methods of different types of mechanical and electrical products through the risk level. For example, the on-site inspection method should be adopted for each batch of risk products proposed in this paper; Class II risk products should be extracted. The proportional on-site inspection method, while the rest uses the conformity evaluation mode; Three types of risk products should use the qualified assurance mode

2.2 establish a risk early warning and reporting system

the above roughly outlines the establishment process of the risk early warning mechanism of mechanical and electrical products. Today, with the highly developed computer and network technology, we should fully absorb these advantages to build a risk early warning and reporting system, so as to realize the rapid collection of risk early warning information, and then determine the relevant objects based on the collected information by the domestic special metal materials independently developed by China Steel Research, In order to timely release risk early warning information to relevant countries and regions to urge them to make corresponding changes, so as to improve the quality of imported mechanical and electrical products and reduce the risks it brings

3 conclusion

imported mechanical and electrical products play an important role in China's economic development, especially in recent years, the annual import volume of mechanical and electrical products has been increasing, and the risk assessment of mechanical and electrical products is particularly important. The risk early warning system of imported mechanical and electrical products discussed in this paper applies the risk management theory to the inspection and supervision, so as to improve the product quality and speed up the speed of product customs clearance. This risk early warning mechanism has good feasibility. Of course, in order to improve the efficiency of inspection and supervision, we also need to improve the quality assurance system of jianumbrella products and strengthen the quality training of inspection and quarantine personnel

Copyright © 2011 JIN SHI